Published February 2023 on YouTube

Dr. Andy Galpin: Optimal Nutrition & Supplementation for Fitness | Huberman Lab Guest Series

1. Nutrition & Supplementation

Nutrition & Supplementation:Andrew and Andy discuss the transformation in the public's view of nutrition and supplementation, and how potent compounds can transform our ability to perform and recover. They aim to sort through the cloud of supplements and provide clarity on the confusing realm of nutrition.+
Precision Supplementation:Andy Galpin discusses the importance of precision supplementation, where individuals are given only what they need based on extensive biological testing. He also shares his 80/20 rule for effective and cost-efficient supplements for muscle growth, fat loss, energy, physical performance, and longevity.+

2. Creatine Benefits

Benefits of Creatine:Andy and Darren discuss the many benefits of Creatine, including improved muscle performance and strength, as well as potential cognitive benefits such as memory and executive function. While the research on its effects on neurodegenerative diseases is mixed, there are no known downsides to taking Creatine.+
Creatine Benefits:Andy Galpin and Andrew Huberman discuss the potential benefits of Creatine, including aiding in muscle recovery, fat loss, and cognitive function. They also mention the minimal side effects and provide links to studies supporting these claims. Galpin emphasizes that Creatine is not just for high performance athletes and can benefit anyone.+
Creatine Benefits:Andy and Andrew discuss the benefits of creatine supplementation, including its ability to enhance brain function, suppress anxiety, and its relatively affordable cost. They also touch on the recent increase in price and the potential for co-ingesting with carbohydrates to enhance its effectiveness.+
Enhancing Hydration:Andy and Andrew discuss the benefits of creatine in enhancing hydration and improving cognitive function after sleep deprivation. While it may cause some GI distress, creatine is a relatively inexpensive supplement with a good return on investment. However, it needs to be consumed consistently over several weeks to have a noticeable effect.+
Chronic Effects:Andrew and Andy discuss the slow, modulatory effects of supplements and behaviors like creatine, and how consistent use can lead to long-term benefits for mental and physical health. They also touch on the different categories of supplements, including fuel, stimulant, and fatigue blockers.+

3. Momentous, Levels, LMNT

Andrew Huberman discusses the importance of using high-quality single-ingredient supplements for hormone health, sleep optimization, focus, and exercise recovery. He recommends Momentous for their quality and international shipping.+

4. Hydration for Performance

Hydration & Electrolytes:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of hydration and electrolytes for mental and physical performance. They debunk the myth of alkaline water and emphasize the need to focus on optimizing other aspects of nutrition before worrying about the pH of drinking water. They also touch on the volume and timing of water intake for optimal performance.+
Dehydration and Performance:Andy explains how even a 2% reduction in body weight due to dehydration can significantly reduce accuracy and performance in both physical and mental tasks. Being dehydrated also affects blood volume and endurance, making it important to stay hydrated during exercise.+
Fluid Intake and Hyponatremia:Andy explains the importance of maintaining a balance of electrolytes in the body and how excessive fluid intake can lead to hyponatremia, a condition where the concentration of sodium in the blood becomes dangerously low. He also highlights the risks associated with hyponatremia, including reduced muscle contraction and even death.+
Dehydration Symptoms:Andy Galpin shares how dehydration can cause symptoms like brain fog, confusion, and GI distress, which can be mistaken for gut problems. He gives an example of a female CEO who was drinking excessive amounts of water, causing sleep problems and focus issues. Lowering her water intake helped improve her performance.+
Hydration and High Performance:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of proper hydration and electrolyte balance for high performance. They explain how every cellular process in the body relies on having enough sodium, magnesium, and potassium, and how even small deviations from optimal hydration levels can cause problems. They also share a success story of how correcting hydration levels improved a woman's sleep, focus, and digestion.+
Bladder and Anxiety:Andrew and Andy discuss the direct neural pathway from the bladder that registers the mechanosensors and sends a signal to the brain stem alertness areas, causing anxiety-like symptoms. They also explain how night urination can be a diagnostic of sleep disorders, and how drinking too much water can cause nocturia.+
Hydration and Sleep:Andy Galpin explains how hydration affects sleep and how to diagnose dehydration. He also discusses the importance of monitoring your body weight and urine output to determine if you are properly hydrated.+

5. Hydration Guidelines

Hydration Diagnostics:Andy Galpin shares the classic rule for hydration and how it varies depending on factors like exercise-induced water loss and work environment. He also talks about how much water people typically lose per hour of exercise and how to replenish it.+
Hydration Guidelines:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of hydration during exercise and provide guidelines for how much fluid to consume based on body weight and level of exertion. They also touch on the effects of caffeine on hydration and the need for electrolyte replacement.+

6. Tool: Sweating, Salt & Performance

Sweating Ability:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of sweating ability in regulating body heat during physical activity and its impact on mental performance. They also explore the possibility of training to improve sweating ability and the role of evaporative cooling in regulating body temperature.+
Sweat Training:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of sweating during exercise and how to improve your sweat rate through heat acclimation training. They also touch on the genetic component of sweat rate and how to identify if you are a heavy salt sweater or not.+
Hydration Optimization:Andy Galpin shares insights on optimizing hydration through sweat measurements, blood chemistry tests, and body weight pre and post measurements. He also discusses the importance of matching electrolyte intake to sweat and using biomarkers to measure longer-term hydration status. Additionally, he emphasizes that hydration is critical only if you're losing more than 2% of your body weight during exercise or sports.+

7. AG1 (Athletic Greens)

Andrew discusses his daily use of Athletic Greens, a vitamin, mineral, probiotic, and adaptogen drink that helps him meet his foundational nutritional needs. He shares how it covers his vitamins, minerals, and probiotics, and how adaptogens are critical for recovering from stress, exercise, work, or just general life. Listeners can claim a special offer by going to Athletic

8. Fluid Intake Equation

Fluid Intake Equation:Andy Galpin explains the Galpin Equation for fluid intake during exercise. Take your body weight in pounds, divide it by 30, and consume that number in ounces every 15-20 minutes. For those using the metric system, the equation is 2 mL/kg.+
Hydration Guidelines:Andy Galpin discusses the importance of hydration for optimal performance and provides guidelines for how much water to drink during exercise. The slower and steadier the better, with a few sips every 15-20 minutes being optimal. The Galpin equation can also be used to determine the amount of fluid needed for mental work.+

9. Hydration Optimization

Hydration Optimization:Andy Galpin shares his five-step guide for optimizing hydration for performance, including drinking water first thing in the morning and maintaining hydration throughout training. He also clarifies the importance of not drinking too much water too quickly and the potential consequences of diluting the system.+
Sleep Hydration:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of hydration before sleep and suggest sipping water in the 3 hours preceding sleep. Andy also explains how mouth taping can help reduce fluid intake and improve sleep quality.+
Hydration Rules:Andy Galpin shares hydration rules for optimal performance, including starting your day hydrated and eating mostly whole, real foods. He also debunks the myth that watermelon is high in sugar, making it a great hydrating option.+
Hydration and Nutrition:Andy discusses the importance of hydration and how it relates to nutrition. Eating whole, real foods can significantly increase hydration, but it's important to add salt back into the diet.+
Hydration Tips:Andy shares tips on how to stay hydrated before and during a workout. He suggests pre-hydrating with half a pound per body weight of ounces and adjusting depending on lifestyle and humidity. He also recommends using the WT system to check body weight, urine color, and thirst to predict hydration status. During a workout, he advises consuming fluids that are ISO osmotic to your blood and similar in concentration to what is lost in your sweat.+
Sodium and Hydration:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of sodium in maintaining mental and physical stamina, especially for health-conscious individuals who are not consuming a lot of processed foods and are training. They also share tips on how to stay hydrated, including adding a pinch of salt to coconut water and being mindful of carbohydrate intake.+
Salt Intake:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of salt intake and how to listen to your body's salt appetite. They also mention the sensitivity of some individuals to sodium and the need to work with a medical specialist in such cases.+

10. Enhancing Exercise Performance

Enhancing Exercise Performance:Andy Galpin discusses the importance of electrolytes and carbohydrates in enhancing exercise performance, and recommends a glucose concentration of 5-9% in fluids during training sessions. He also suggests starting with 60 grams of carbohydrates per hour and adjusting based on individual needs.+
Carb Intake:Andy explains the importance of carbohydrate intake during exercise to enhance performance and hydration. He also discusses the types of carbohydrates and the need to train your gut to avoid stomach issues during exercise.+

11. InsideTracker

Andrew takes a brief break to acknowledge Inside Tracker, a personalized nutrition platform that analyzes data from your blood and DNA to help you better understand your body and reach your health goals. Inside Tracker allows you to see what your specific numbers are and what sorts of behavioral do's and don'ts, nutritional changes, and supplementation would allow you to bring those levels into the ranges that are optimal for you.+

12. Fasted Training and Fueling

Training Fasted:Andrew discusses his preference for training in a fasted state and the benefits of ingesting caffeine before a workout. He also shares his thoughts on how to modulate fluid intake during fasted training.+
Exercise Fuel and Sleep:Andy and Andrew discuss the relationship between exercise fuel and sleep, and how caffeine can affect sleep after exercise. They also explain when fueling prior to exercise is necessary and how the total amount of macronutrients throughout the day is more important than timing.+
Fueling for Workouts:Andy Galpin discusses the importance of fueling for workouts, particularly the timing of carbohydrate intake. He recommends consuming half a gram of carbohydrate per pound of body weight for high energy expenditure workouts and adjusting the amount based on the intensity of the workout. Recovery also starts during the previous workout, with protein intake throughout the day being more important for muscle growth than timing.+

13. Caffeine & Endurance

Stimulants:Andy and Andrew discuss the benefits of caffeine as a stimulant for mental and physical performance. They recommend taking 1-3 milligrams per kilogram of body weight about 30 minutes prior to exercise for the best results.+
Caffeine Performance:Andrew and Andy discuss the impact of caffeine on performance and how too much caffeine can actually degrade performance. They also talk about the high amounts of caffeine in commercially sold coffees and the importance of finding the right amount of caffeine for your body.+

14. Non-Stimulant Performance Enhancers

Andy and Andrew discuss non-stimulant supplements that can enhance performance without disrupting sleep, including citrulline, beetroot, and Alpha GPC. They also touch on the use of these supplements in caloric restriction situations and caution against their use for those prone to cold sores.+

15. Rhodiola, Cortisol & Fatigue

Andy Galpin discusses the benefits and challenges of using Rhodiola Rosa as a supplement to reduce fatigue. He explains the importance of sourcing high-quality brands and being careful with Cortisol suppression. Andrew Huberman shares his personal experience with using Rhodiola Rosa before workouts and how it helped him push harder and longer.+

16. Tool: Supplement Formulations

Rational Supplementation:Andrew emphasizes the importance of using single ingredient formulations for rational supplementation. He encourages people to become scientists of themselves and try to limit the number of variables. Personalized supplementation is the key to figuring out what works for you and what doesn't.+
Single-Ingredient Supplements:Andy Galpin emphasizes the importance of taking single-ingredient supplements to ensure the effectiveness of the supplement and to know the exact amount that is on the label. He warns that combining supplements with other ingredients can limit options and make it difficult to determine which ingredient is causing negative effects.+
Supplement Safety:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of third-party testing for supplements and the potential dangers of not knowing what's in them. They caution against blends that may not have enough of the active ingredients and suggest single-ingredient formulations for 80% of your supplements.+

17. Supplement Dependency

Supplement Dependency:Andrew and Andy discuss the issue of dependency on supplements and the importance of taking breaks from them. They aim to get people to a physiological state where they require little to no supplementation.+
Managing Short-Term Tactics:Andy discusses his philosophy on using short-term tactics like supplements for symptom management, but emphasizes the importance of uncovering the root cause of the issue. He explains that while supplements can be helpful in the short-term, they should not be relied on as a long-term solution.+
Dependency and Resilience:Andy and Andrew discuss the difference between physiological and emotional dependency on supplements and how they aim to create resilient individuals who don't rely on anything. They also share their algorithm to measure physiological resilience.+
Better Living Through Chemistry:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of establishing good habits and nutrition as foundational tools before turning to supplements and prescription drugs. They also touch on the effects of caffeine on the adenosine system and the importance of timing caffeine intake.+

18. Supplement and Gut Health

Supplement Protocols:Andrew and Andy discuss the variability of supplement protocols and the importance of nutrition in supplement usage. They emphasize the idea that people don't have to take supplements all the time and that it's important to consider how well you're eating.+
Gut Microbiome Changes:Andy and Greg discuss the benefits of taking Beta Alanine consistently and how exercise can cause significant changes in the gut microbiome. Although gut microbiome supplementation is an emerging area of science, it is important to work with a qualified physician and not randomly assign probiotics or prebiotics without intention.+

19. Sleep and Performance

Sleep and Performance:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of sleep for performance enhancement and how improving the quality and duration of sleep can indirectly improve performance. They also touch on the advancements in sleep tracking technology and the benefits of clinical grade sleep studies.+
Improving Sleep:Andy Galpin explains how wearables are not accurate enough to analyze sleep patterns and how his team uses a full fourfold system to analyze sleep. This includes a biological analysis, environmental scan, and other factors that could disrupt sleep. He also shares tips on how to improve sleep, such as washing sheets at least once a week.+
Improving Sleep:Andy and his team discuss the importance of a good sleep environment and the impact of CO2 levels on sleep quality. They also highlight the role of psychology and sleep pathology in determining sleep quality. The team works with experts to analyze data and develop action plans to improve sleep.+
Optimizing Sleep Environment:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of optimizing your sleep environment for better sleep quality. They provide tips such as cleaning sheets, keeping pets out of the bedroom, and increasing negative ion concentration. They emphasize that getting excellent sleep consistently can transform everything you do, while poor sleep quality can have negative effects.+

20. Sleep Optimization Tips

Sleep Tips:Andy shares some tips for better sleep, including using an app called Timeshifter for jet lag, elevating the head of your bed for acid reflux, and only using your bed for sleeping and sex. He also suggests myofunctional therapy for snoring and tongue exercises for better REM sleep.+
Sleep Optimization:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of sleep, the negative effects of sleeping with a partner, and the rise of orthosomnia caused by sleep trackers. They provide tips on how to optimize sleep, including using night mode or airplane mode on your phone and not checking your sleep score for at least the first hour after waking up.+
Better Sleep:Andy and Andrew share tips and supplements for better sleep, including using black and white mode on phones and taking inositol supplements to fall back asleep more easily.+
Sleep Tools:Andrew and Andy discuss various tools to improve sleep, including the Reverie app and behavioral techniques such as getting up to complete a task that's keeping you awake. They emphasize the importance of finding what works for you and your budget.+

21. Inflammation and Exercise

Inflammation and Exercise:Andrew and Andy discuss the relationship between inflammation and exercise. They explore the fitness fatigue model and how it affects performance. They also discuss the best supplements for reducing inflammation and when to take them.+
Reducing Fatigue:Andy explains that reducing fatigue is the key to increasing performance and actualizing training adaptations. One way to do this is through tapering, which involves reducing training volume by 50% for every eight weeks of training. This can result in a 3-8% improvement in performance within days.+
Tapering for Performance:Andy explains how tapering can enhance performance by removing the stimuli that suppresses muscle fibers. By reducing the volume of training, fast twitch muscle fibers can recover back to normal size, leading to a 10% increase in size. Additionally, endurance athletes can reduce their volume without losing fitness, as their VO2 max and enzymes responsible for oxidative metabolism remain stable.+

22. Recovery Nutrition

Recovery Process:Andy explains the three-step recovery process for injuries and how inflammation plays a crucial role in it. He also advises against taking anti-inflammatory medicine during the immediate inflammatory response time window and suggests omega three s and Curcumin as good supplements for recovery.+
Curcumin and Glutamine:Andrew and Andy discuss the effects of curcumin on Dht and how it can impact libido and mood. They also caution against taking anti-inflammatory supplements without a reason. Andy recommends glutamine as a supplement for cell cleanup and recovery.+
Glutamine Benefits:Andrew and Andy discuss the benefits of glutamine, including its role in recovery products and potential to offset sugar cravings by triggering activation of neurons in the gut that signal to the dopamine pathway in the brain. They also mention the lack of reported side effects and suggest gradually building up to higher dosages to avoid gastric distress.+
Recovery Nutrition:Andy Galpin shares his recommendations for nutrition during the recovery process. He advises increasing calorie intake by 10% to account for increased basal metabolic rate, and ensuring a protein intake of at least 1 gram per pound of body weight to aid in recovery.+
Nutrient Timing:Andy Galpin explains the importance of protein and carbohydrates in the recovery process and the role of micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc. He also discusses the benefits of magnesium, calcium, vitamin D, and tart cherry juice in aiding recovery and managing inflammation.+

23. Audience Questions

Andy Galpin answers audience questions on topics such as intermittent fasting with keto and gaining muscle mass, the use of GABA supplements, and training while fasted. He also discusses the importance of considering optimal performance versus simply being able to perform while fasting.+

24. Carb Timing & Anabolic Window

Andy Galpin discusses optimal carbohydrate loading prior to long duration endurance performance and the importance of consuming nutrients, specifically protein, within 30-60 minutes post-exercise to maximize growth. The anabolic window is real and hypersensitizes you to nutrients, but total protein intake throughout the day is more important.+

25. Benefits of Garlic and Tart Cherry

Garlic and Tart Cherry:Andrew and Andy discuss the potential benefits of garlic extract for recovery and injury, cautioning that boosting the wrong part of immunity could hinder the process. They also touch on the effectiveness of tart cherry extract for aiding in sleep and muscle soreness.+
Dosage Resources:Andrew and Andy recommend as a terrific website for finding information on dosages of various compounds relating to health, sports, and cognitive performance. The website offers a human effect matrix that shows the strength of different effects in human studies, with links to studies available at no cost. They also mention that the website provides topical reviews and information on interactions to pay attention to.+

26. Fitness and Nutrition Insights

Fitness Assessment:Andrew educates listeners on various ways to assess their fitness level, including a routine broad jump test and taking pulse rate in specific ways. He emphasizes the importance of identifying areas of weakness and implementing ways to adjust them over time.+
Breaking Barriers:Andrew discusses breaking through barriers with endurance training and implementing an optimal fitness program. He shares insights on the importance of tapping into different fuel systems and neuromuscular interactions for endurance training, as well as the quadrant approach to designing a fitness program.+
Performance Nutrition:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of nutrition and supplementation for optimal performance. They cover topics such as what to eat, when to eat, and which nutrients are essential for recovery and mental states during training. They also delve into the benefits of magnesium, garlic, tart cherry extract, and alphagpc, and the role of sleep in overall performance and recovery.+
Final Thoughts:Andy shares his final thoughts on the podcast series, emphasizing the importance of science as an ongoing and changing process. He expresses gratitude towards the audience for their time and attention, and towards Andrew and the team for their commitment to giving credit where it's due and bringing on direct sources of information. Andy also thanks Andrew for the opportunity to be on the podcast and exceed expectations.+

27. Support and Newsletter

Andrew Huberman shares ways to support the podcast for free, including subscribing to their YouTube channel, leaving a review on Spotify and Apple, and checking out their sponsors. He also promotes their free monthly newsletter, the Neural Network Newsletter, which contains summaries of podcast episodes and protocols discussed on the show.+