Published March 2023 on YouTube

Dr. Satchin Panda: Intermittent Fasting to Improve Health, Cognition & Longevity | Huberman Lab

1. Dr. Satchin Panda

Andrew and Sachin discuss how intermittent fasting and circadian behaviors impact our biology and health. They cover the latest clinical trials and how restricting feeding to specific periods can impact everything from liver and gut health to mood and cognitive performance.+

2. Brain Fuel and Sleep

Fueling the Brain:Andrew discusses the benefits of using ketones as a fuel source for the brain and body, even if not following a ketogenic diet. He also highlights the importance of regulating body temperature for better sleep and introduces Eight Sleep, a smart mattress cover that can help with temperature regulation.+
Sleep and Nootropics:Andrew shares tips on how to improve sleep quality by changing the temperature of the environment and talks about the benefits of using Eight Sleep mattress cover. He also discusses the concept of nootropics and how Thesis has developed customized formulas to enhance mental operations.+

3. Intermittent Fasting Benefits

Intermittent Fasting:Dr. Panda explains the history and benefits of intermittent fasting, including how it can potentially prevent age-related diseases and increase lifespan. He also discusses the difficulty of calorie counting and the importance of time-restricted eating.+
Intermittent Fasting Benefits:Satchin Panda discusses the benefits of intermittent fasting, including alternate day fasting, five-two diet, and periodic fasting. He also explains time-restricted eating, which involves confining all energy intake within a consistent window of 8-12 hours. Panda notes that time-restricted feeding experiments show health benefits even when calorie intake remains the same.+

4. Mealtimes & Circadian Clock

Feeding Window Timing:Satchin explains the concept of circadian rhythm and how it relates to time-restricted feeding. Our body has an internal timetable that pre-programs many molecular aspects of cells and organs, and the circadian clocks are more sensitive to light. Therefore, the start of the feeding window is interesting because it affects our internal clock.+
The Power of Consistency:Satchin explains how our internal clocks rely on consistency, particularly when it comes to eating habits. Changing our feeding times can disrupt our circadian rhythm, leading to grogginess and decreased performance. By staying consistent, we can take advantage of our body's anticipatory activity and optimize our organ systems for peak performance.+

5. Anticipatory Signals

Satchin explains the importance of anticipatory signals in our daily routine, from waking up to digestion. He highlights how our body prepares itself for digestion and how eating at the wrong time can affect our health. Andrew shares his personal experience with digestion and how selecting a feeding window can have benefits.+

6. Breaking a Fast, Burning Fat

Fasted vs Fed:Andrew discusses the differences between being in a fasted state versus a fed state and how it relates to blood sugar and metabolism. He explores the nuances of what breaks a fast and how different activities can affect our metabolic state.+
Fat Burning Process:Satchin explains how our body consumes glucose and fat as energy sources and how to measure this through indirect caloriemetry. He also discusses how mice's metabolism differs from humans and how they mostly run on fat after 12-14 hours of fasting. Andrew clarifies that the fat burning process refers to body fat stores being burned.+
Burning Body Fat:Satchin and Andrew discuss the confusion surrounding burning body fat and how it relates to dietary fat. They explain that eating more fat doesn't necessarily mean you'll burn more body fat and that under conditions of caloric restriction, you may actually burn less.+

7. Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens)

Andrew discusses the benefits of Athletic Greens, a vitamin mineral probiotic drink that supports gut health and provides adaptogens, vitamins, and minerals to meet foundational nutritional needs. Listeners can try Athletic Greens by going to for five free travel packs and a year supply of vitamin D3 K2.+

8. Feeding for Longevity

Time-Restricted Feeding:Satchin explains how calorie restriction and time-restricted feeding affects the lifespan of rats and mice. He shares an experiment that shows how mice eat all their food within three to four hours and then fast for the rest of the day. The question arises whether the benefits of calorie restriction are due to reduced calorie or time-restricted feeding.+
Calorie Restriction:Satchin discusses a study on calorie restriction and lifespan in mice, revealing that snacking throughout the day and night can extend lifespan by 10%. Andrew addresses the confusion surrounding intermittent fasting and its benefits beyond weight loss.+
Time-Restricted Eating:Andrew and Satchin discuss how time-restricted eating can lead to longevity. They explain that restricting calories to the active cycle can increase lifespan by 20%, while restricting calories during the inactive cycle can increase lifespan by 35%.+
Biomarkers and Caloric Restriction:Satchin Panda discusses how none of the known biomarkers could predict the benefit of calorie restriction in mice, and that body weight and composition were not affected by the pattern of eating as long as calorie intake was sub-maintenance. The discussion also touches on the human study regarding calorie restriction and portion control within a feeding window, and how a two-hour difference did not affect weight loss.+

9. Risks of Time-Restricted Eating

Satchin and Andrew discuss the potential risks of time-restricted eating, especially for female athletes. They explore the effects of energy deficits on bone health, menstrual cycles, and mental health, highlighting the importance of maintaining a balanced diet and eating habits.+

10. Time-Restricted Eating

Time-Restricted Eating:Satchin discusses the benefits of time-restricted eating and suggests that 8-10 hours of fasting may be the ideal spot to begin with. He also mentions a study where people who ate within 12 hours improved their nutrition quality and reduced their intake of unhealthy ultra-processed foods.+
Time-Restricted Eating:Satchin and Andrew discuss the benefits of time-restricted eating, where individuals consume their calories within a 12-hour window. They also touch on the importance of combining this with exercise and better nutrition quality for optimal results.+

11. Time-Restricted Eating

Andrew and Satchin discuss a recent study on time-restricted eating and low carbohydrate diets. They explore the idea that it's not just the total number of calories or the quality of those calories, but also the timing of those calories that matter. They suggest that carbohydrate restriction in conjunction with time-restricted eating might be the best path for people looking to lose weight.+

12. Timing for Health

Timing and Health:Satchin and Andrew discuss the impact of timing on mental and gut health. They explore how caffeine on an empty stomach can trigger anxiety, panic attacks, and acid reflux. They emphasize the importance of considering the timing of food intake and its impact on overall health.+
Evolution of Nighttime:Satchin explains the evolution of nighttime and how the controlled use of fire led to communal fireside chats, where humans talked about culture, politics, philosophy, and science.+
Coffee's Historical Roots:Satchin explains how coffee started as an evening activity for socializing and political discussions in Istanbul, but eventually became a morning drink to help Muslims stay awake for their early morning prayers.+
Coffee and Breakfast:Andrew and Satchin discuss the origins of breakfast and its link to coffee in Turkey. They explore how coffee intake led to the development of breakfast as a buffer against gastric distress caused by caffeine intake. They also discuss the benefits of delaying caffeine intake for a few hours after waking up.+

13. Sponsor: InsideTracker

Andrew introduces Inside Tracker, a personalized nutrition platform that analyzes data from blood and DNA to help individuals understand their body and reach their health goals. He explains how regular blood work can help analyze factors that impact immediate and long-term health and how Inside Tracker makes it easy to understand what nutritional and behavioral interventions can be taken to bring metabolic factors into optimal ranges.+

14. Evening Conversations

Evening Conversations:Satchin and Andrew discuss how our conversations and activities between sunset and bedtime can greatly impact our health, including mental health. They also touch on the difference between morning and evening cognition.+
Sleep Patterns:Satchin explains how people in cultures without electricity consistently go to bed within 15 minutes of each other, regardless of whether they consider themselves night owls or morning people.+
Sleep Habits:Satchin and Andrew discuss their sleep habits and how they've changed over time. Satchin used to be a night owl, but having a baby changed his habits. They also talk about how physical activity and camping can affect sleep patterns.+
Resetting Internal Clocks:Andrew and Satchin discuss the ability to reset our internal clocks through consistent sleep patterns, even after returning to environments with artificial lighting. They also explore the idea that our genetic bias towards a certain sleep schedule may need revisiting.+

15. Morning vs Evening

Andrew and Satchin discuss the difference between morning and evening discussions, with morning conversations being mostly work-related and evening conversations being more expressive and free. They also touch on the importance of me time and how social media use should be restricted to allow for more productive discussions and social interaction. The conversation ties back to the topic of circadian rhythm and human evolution.+

16. Light and Sleep

Light Sensitivity:Satchin and Andrew discuss the impact of light sensitivity on the circadian rhythm, with Andrew sharing his own experience and solution of using a red light to improve the depth and duration of his sleep.+
Sleep Timing:Satchin explains that teenagers become more sensitive to light after puberty and tend to stay awake late into the night. However, their body still needs the same amount of sleep as other teenagers. Andrew asks if going to sleep within 3 hours of sunset is somehow better for our circadian timing mechanisms. Satchin explains that there is a tension between the circadian aspect and sleep debt, which makes it difficult to have a good night of restorative sleep for the second half of the sleep.+

17. Shift Workers, Health & Disease

Shift Work:Satchin Panda discusses the definition of shift work and its effects on the body. He shares insights from his recent study on firefighters and time restricted feeding, which has implications for shift workers in general.+
Shift Workers:Satchin explains that around 50% of the adult population experiences the life of a shift worker at any given time, including college students and new mothers. Shift workers carry a disproportionately heavier burden of disease, including age-related diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, gastrointestinal problems, chronic inflammation of the colon, colon cancer, and diabetes.+
Shift Work Challenges:Satchin explains how shift workers are excluded from many clinical trials and how lifestyle interventions like sleep extension and physical activity are difficult for them to implement. Andrew adds that even dim light in the room can disrupt morning blood glucose levels. They estimate that half of Americans are shift workers in some capacity.+

18. Sleep and Obesity

Sleep Habits:Satchin and Andrew discuss the sleep habits of high school and college students, revealing that many are staying up late due to artificial lighting and caffeine consumption. They also touch on the impact of remote learning on assignment deadlines and how it affects sleep patterns.+
Obesity Crisis:Andrew and Satchin discuss the causes of the obesity crisis, including seed oils, highly processed foods, lack of activity, and late shifted eating. Satchin highlights the impact of late night lectures and socializing on college students' eating habits, and emphasizes the need to revisit this issue.+

19. Firefighters' Health

Circadian Health:Andrew and Satchin discuss the importance of feeding and being active in the early part of the day for optimal circadian health. They also highlight the issues related to disrupted sleep and the lack of studies on improving the health of shift workers.+
Firefighters' Health:Satchin Panda discusses a study conducted with firefighters to address their high incidence of heart attacks, strokes, and cancer. The study involved finding metabolically unhealthy firefighters and testing their ability to follow a 10-hour timerestricted eating schedule. The hope is that if firefighters can follow it, then others can too.+
Firefighter's Schedule:Satchin and Andrew discuss the feasibility of firefighters eating within a 10-hour window. They share the challenges faced during the clinical trial and how researchers lived the life of firefighters to understand their culture.+
Firefighter Diets:Satchin Panda discusses a study where 150 firefighters were assigned to either a Mediterranean Diet or a 10-hour eating window. The firefighters who followed the 10-hour eating window were able to stick to it consistently and saw positive health outcomes.+
Firefighters' Health:Satchin explains how time-restricted eating can benefit firefighters' health. The study showed that those who started with high blood pressure saw a significant reduction in their systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while those with high blood sugar could better manage their blood glucose.+

20. Shift Work Nutrition

Satchin explains how firefighters' sleep patterns differ from other shift workers and how their eating habits were improved by a Mediterranean diet. Andrew adds that alcohol consumption can have significant health deficits, even at low levels.+

21. 12- Hour Feeding Window for Adults & Children, Sleep

Time Restricted Feeding:Satchin Panda discusses the benefits of time restricted feeding and how it changes the gut microbiome in mice, leading to increased thermogenesis and burning of extract calories. The conversation also touches on the importance of philanthropists in funding groundbreaking scientific research.+
Science Funding:Satchin and Andrew discuss the challenges of securing funding for scientific research, including the responsibility to not waste taxpayer money and the passion-driven nature of scientific work. They also touch on the development of an innovative nutrition app that simplifies tracking meals.+
Eating Habits:Satchin shares insights from a study on eating habits, revealing that people snack an average of seven times a day and eat within a 14 hour, 45 minute window. These findings shed light on our eating habits and how our bodies expect food throughout the day.+
Eating and Sleeping Habits:Satchin Panda and Andrew Huberman discuss how snacking has increased and how nearly 90% of adults are eating for more than 12 hours. They also talk about the recommended hours of sleep for children and teenagers and how most high school students are chronically sleep deprived.+

22. Meal Timing

Andrew and Satchin discuss the importance of structuring meal intake within a feeding window and the potential consequences of shifting meal times. They touch on the emerging field of circadian rhythm and meal timing and the need for further research in this area.+

23. Fasting Benefits

Satchin Panda discusses the benefits of complete fasting, including potential health benefits such as weight loss and improved mental health. Studies have shown that periodic fasting can have a positive impact on brain health, and there are even fasting clinics in Germany where people fast for multiple days under strict supervision.+

24. Low Carb Diets

Andrew and Satchin discuss the impact of low carbohydrate diets on blood glucose and the potential consequences of long-term engagement. They also touch on the importance of insulin and insulin-like growth factor in muscle protein synthesis and tissue repair.+

25. Fasting Mimetics

Fasting Mimetics:Satchin and Andrew discuss how drugs like metformin and rapamycin mimic the effects of fasting, activating Mpkinase and reducing Mtor activity, which has been shown to extend mouse lifespan and improve health. They also touch on the importance of time-restricted eating and the potential issues with nighttime eating.+
Metformin and Berberine:Satchin and Andrew discuss the effects of metformin and berberine on blood glucose levels and the potential benefits of taking them at different times of the day. Andrew shares his personal experience with berberine and the importance of paying attention to circadian effects.+

26. Circadian Rhythm & Metabolism

Satchin Panda discusses the connection between metabolism and circadian rhythms, highlighting how almost all metabolic regulators have a circadian rhythm. Ron Evans' experiment revealed that nuclear hormone receptors have a circadian pattern, which aligns with the daily rhythms in food seeking behavior and eating.+

27. Shift Work Insights

Actionable Shift Work:Andrew and Sachin discuss the actionable insights for shift workers and how many people don't realize they are shift workers. Sachin shares tools and considerations for those engaging in shift work.+
Circadian Rhythm:Satchin and Andrew discuss the importance of aligning our internal clock with our habits and how it affects our health. They also talk about the new On Time Health app that helps balance feeding, fasting, activity, and sleep.+

28. Circadian Biology

Andrew discusses the importance of circadian biology and time restricted feeding with Dr. Satchin. They also talk about the benefits of supplements and how to get the most out of them.+